Netter's Anatomy Coloring Book Answer Key – The pancreas is the digestive organ of vertebrates and the organ of the doctrine system. In humans, it is located behind the stomach and functions as a gland. The pancreas is a mixed or heterogeneous gland. That is, it has both doctrinal and exocrine digestive functions.
As a gland, it functions primarily to regulate blood sugar levels by secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide hormones. Part of the digestive system, it serves as an exocrine gland that secretes pancreatic juice through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum. This juice contains bicarbonate which neutralizes acids that block the duodenum from the stomach. Digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in food that separate the duodenum from the stomach.
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Inflammation of the pancreas is known as pancreatitis with common causes including chronic alcohol use and kidney stones. Because of its role in regulating blood sugar, the pancreas is also a key organ in diabetes. Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis because it can develop after chronic pancreatitis or for other reasons and is often only identified after it has spread to other parts of the body.
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The word pancreas comes from the Greek words πᾶν (pân, “all”) and κρεας (kréas, “flesh”). The function of the pancreas in diabetes has been known since at least 1889, and its role in insulin production was identified in 1921.
The pancreas (shown in pink) lies behind the stomach, its body near the curvature of the duodenum and its tail extending to reach the spleen.
The pancreas is an organ located in the human abdomen, extending from the back of the stomach to the left upper abdomen near the spleen. In adults, they are about 12 to 15 cm (4.7 to 5.9 in) long, flake-shaped, and salmon-colored.
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Anatomically, the pancreas is divided into a head, neck, body, and tail. The pancreas extends from the inner bend of the duodenum, whose head surrounds the two blood vessels, the artery and the superior mesenteric vein. The body, the longest part of the pancreas, extends behind the stomach, and the tail of the pancreas is next to the spleen.
Two ducts pass through the body of the pancreas: the main pancreatic duct and the minor pancreatic duct. The main pancreatic duct connects with the common bile duct to form a small balloon called the ampulla of Barter (the ampulla of the hepatopancreas). This ampulla is surrounded by a muscle called the sphincter of Oddi. This ampoule enters the lower part of the duodenum. The opening of the common bile duct into the main pancreatic duct is controlled by the Boyd sphincter. The accessory pancreatic duct enters the duodenum through a separate opening located above the opening of the main pancreatic duct.
The head of the pancreas lies within the duodenum and surrounds the superior mesenteric artery and vein. On the right is the descending part of the duodenum, between which flows are the superior duodenal artery and the inferior pancreatic duodenal artery. Behind it is the inferior vena cava and the common bile duct. In front is the peritoneum and transverse colon.
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A small uncinate process emerges from under the head, behind the superior mestric vein and sometimes an artery.
The neck of the pancreas separates the head of the pancreas from the body, located on the curvature of the duodenum. The neck is about 2 cm (0.79 in) wide and is anterior where the portal vein is formed. The neck is mainly behind the pylorus of the stomach and is covered by the peritoneum. The anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery travels in front of the neck of the pancreas.
The body is the largest part of the pancreas, mostly behind the abdomen and tapering along its length. The peritoneum sits above the body of the pancreas and the colon runs transversely in front of the peritoneum.
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Behind the pancreas are several blood vessels, including the aorta, splenic vein, left auricular vein, as well as the beginnings of the superior mesenteric artery.
Beneath the body of the pancreas are parts of the small intestine, particularly the last part of the duodenum, the connecting jejunum, and the duodenal suspension ligament between the two. In front of the pancreas is the transverse colon.
It is usually 1.3 to 3.5 cm (0.51 to 1.38 inches) long and is located between the ligamentous layers between the spleen and the left kidney. The splice arteries and veins that run behind the body of the pancreas also pass behind the tail of the pancreas.
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The pancreas has a rich blood supply with blood vessels originating from branches of the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery.
The splice artery runs along the top of the pancreas and supplies the left side of the body and tail of the pancreas through pancreatic branches, the largest of which is called the great pancreatic artery.
The superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries run along the anterior and posterior surfaces of the pancreatic head adjacent to the duodenum. It supplies the head of the pancreas. These vessels are centrally joined (anastamose).
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The body and tail lymphatic vessels drain into splicing lymph nodes and finally into lymph nodes located in front of the aorta between the celiac and superior mestric arteries. The lymphatic vessels of the head and neck drain into the middle lymphatic duct around the pancreaticoduodenal, mestrick, and hepatic arteries, and from there to the lymph nodes located in front of the aorta.
This image shows pancreatic islets with pancreatic tissue stained and viewed under a microscope. The pancreatic (“exocrine”) portion of the digestive tract may be darker around the islets. It contains fuzzy dark purple granules of inactive digestive enzymes (zymogs).
Islets using fluorescent antibodies to mark the localization of different cell types in the islets. Antibodies to glucagon secreted by alpha cells indicate peripheral localization. Antibodies to insulin secreted by beta cells represent a more extensive and central location possessed by these cells.
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The pancreas contains tissues that serve as doctrinal and exocrine glands, and these parts can be seen even when the pancreas is viewed under a microscope.
Most pancreatic tissue serves a digestive function. Cells that do this form clusters (Latin: acini) around small blood vessels and are arranged in lobes with thin fibrous walls. The cells of each acinar secrete an inactive digestive enzyme called a zymog into the small criss-cross tubes that surround them. In each acinar, cells are pyramidal and arranged around cross channels, nuclei are located in the basement membrane, large plasma reticulum, and some zymogular granules visible in the cytoplasm. The interlobular duct drains into the larger intralobular duct within the lobules and finally into the interlobular duct. The ducts are lined with a single layer of columnar cells. As the duct diameter increases, there is one or more cell layers.
Tissues that play a doctrinal role in the pancreas exist as clusters of cells called islets (also called islets of Langerhans) that are distributed throughout the pancreas.
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Pancreatic islets contain alpha cells, beta cells, and delta cells, each secreting different hormones. These cells have a characteristic location, with alpha cells (secreting glucagon) probably located around islets and beta cells (secreting insulin) more abundant and found throughout the islets.
The islets are made up of up to 3,000 secretory cells and contain several small arterioles that receive blood and a vulva that allows hormones secreted by the cells to circulate throughout the systemic circulation.
There are several anatomical variations associated with embryonic development of both pancreatic buds. The pancreas develops from these buds on either side of the duodenum. The vtral bud rotates to lie next to the dorsal bud and eventually coalesce. In about 10% of adults, an accessory pancreatic duct may remain if the main stem of the pancreatic embryo does not retract. This duct enters the small duodenal papilla.
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The pancreas may have two separate ducts if the two buds, each with a duct, do not fuse themselves, a condition known as pancreatic splitting. This condition has no physiological consequences.
If the vtral bud does not rotate completely, an annular pancreas may be present in which part or all of the duodenum is surrounded by the pancreas. It may be related to duodenal atresia.
Fewer than 100 of these genes are specifically expressed in the pancreas. Similar to salivary glands, most pancreas-associated genes encode secreted proteins. Corresponding pancreatic specific proteins are expressed in the exocrine cell compartment and have functions related to digestion or food intake, such as the digestive enzymes chymotrypsinog and pancreatic lipase PNLIP, or expressed in various independent pancreatic islet cells and have functions related to secretion. Hormones such as insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptides.
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The pancreas is a dorsal and ventral bud that originates in the anterior intestine, the antecedent of the digestive tract. As it develops, the vtral buds rotate in opposite directions and the two buds fuse.
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